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Next to the Palagio di Parte Guelfa and precisely in the building belonging to the Cavalcanti family in the thirteenth century in via Pellicceria, we find the restaurant “The Old Stove”. It often happens by walking in a hurry immersed in our thoughts not to see some details of the city in this case of a certain importance. At the corner of the room under the counterfeit of the building we see a marble plaque placed by the Municipality of Florence in 1882, it is the commemorative plaque of the first Italian vocabulary that the academics of the Crusca from 1590 to 1612 compiled inside that building. Another excellence of the city of Florence.

The origin of this institution has a completely “anti-academic” prologue: its founders had initially called themselves the brigade of the Cruscons and constituted a sort of circle whose members-poets, writers, men of law-used to gather in Harge convivial occasions, during which they played “crufe” as a game, that is, cultured and playful and playful style speeches. The declared intention, which is already evident from the choice of the name, is to detach itself from the pedantry of the Florentine Academy, protected by the Grand Duke Cosimo I de ‘Medici, and to oppose his severe and classicist style. The Cruscons fought against the classicist pedantry also with humor, satire, and irony, without this compromising the primary intention of the group, purely literary, and often expressed in high -level literary disputes. The altarpiece of Leonardo Salviati called floured The founders of the Crusca traditionally identify in: Giovan Battista Deti, the Sollo; Anton Francesco Grazzini, the Lasca; Bernardo Canigiani, the Gramolato; Bernardo Zanchini, the Macerato; Bastiano de ‘Rossi, the Inferigno, which was added in October 1582 Leonardo Salviati, the floured (1540-1589).

Under the push and with the decisive contribution of the latter, finally, starting from 1583, the Academy takes new shape, directing consistently for the purpose that the academics proposed: showing and preserving the beauty of the Florentine Vulgar, modeled on the authors of the Three hundred. The academy, therefore, leaves the playful and playful imprint, to marry the regulatory role that would have taken on from that moment on, keeping it for centuries. The meaning of the term also changed: the academics of the bran worked to distinguish the good and pure part of the tongue (flour) from the bad and impure side (precisely, the bran). Hence the symbolism and the apparatus: the coat of arms is a whisk or puppet with the Petrarchian motto the most beautiful flower captures as it teaches. The members assumed, at least of the first centuries, a “name of Crusca”: a nickname in some way linked to the life cycle of wheat and to types or loaves of bread (such as floured, chopped, gramlated, impatted, etc.); Each academic also had a company: a wooden altarpiece with painting the name of academic, a motto normally taken from Petrarch and an image that served as a connection between the name and the motto. Furthermore, at the headquarters of the Accademia della Crusca, in particular in the Sala delle Pale, other furnishings are kept that always refer to the same semantic field, such as the seats composed of a reversal basket that have, as a back, a back oven shovel.

Monosini and the first vocabulary One of the first scholars to influence the work of the Crusca was Agnolo Monosini. Monosini made an important contribution to the first edition of the Vocabulary of the academics of the Crusca (1612), especially in the field of etymology and Paremiology. The first edition of the Vocabulary of the Crusca reflects the linguistic conception of Salviati (and after him of the Accademica Vincenzo Maria Borghini) who goes beyond the positions of Pietro Bembo: he dates back to an ideal of pure, natural, popular Florentine language, legitimized by the Use of supreme writers as minimal ones. The vocabulary also recorded the words of the Vivo Florentine provided that they are testified and therefore legitimized in ancient authors or minor texts, even if unknown. The vocabulary is characterized by a total disinterest in technical-scientific terminology. The distinction between the use of poetry and prose disappears, the reference to regional or dialectal uses, the habit of inserting grammatical observations within the items. The uses still linked to Latin were abandoned. The archaizing approach aroused the criticisms of goods, taxons, Bartoli, Politi, Gigli, Spadafora.

The criticisms did not modify the way of working academics so much so that the second edition of 1623 did not differ much from the first except for some corrections and for the increase in the total number of recorded items. A title page of the fourth edition of 1729-1738 The third edition was printed in Florence at the Stamperia of the Accademia della Crusca and was published in 1691 in three volumes with dedication to Cosimo III de ‘Medici. It presents changes of great importance: V.A. is introduced To mark the ancient voices as a historical testimony to be able to understand ancient texts and not as an example to follow; The authors from which the examples were taken had grown up and also included some modern, including the rate (excluded from the first 2 editions), Machiavelli, Guicciardini, Della Casa, Varchi, as well as Sannazaro, Castiglione, Chiabrera; It increases the number of scientific treaties in considerations and voices taken from science writers such as Galileo Galilei.

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