Como, city, Lombardia regione (region), northern Italy, rimmed by mountains at the extreme southwest end of Lake Como, north of Milan. As the ancient Comum, perhaps of Gallic origin, it was conquered by the Romans in 196 bce and became a Roman colony under Julius Caesar. It was made a bishopric in 379 ce. In the 11th century, after struggles with the Lombards and the Franks, it became a free commune. Shortly thereafter (1127), however, it was destroyed by the Milanese for having sided with the emperor Frederick I Barbarossa in his conflict with the Lombard League (an alliance of northern Italian towns). Como made peace with Milan in 1183 and after 1335 fell under the rule of the Visconti family and the Sforzas of Milan. During that period its silk industry and wool trade played an important role in the Milanese economy. Later, the city, following the fortunes of Lombardy, came successively under Spanish, French, and Austrian rule, until it was liberated by the Italian patriot Giuseppe Garibaldi in 1859 and became part of the Italian kingdom.
The city’s name was part of the term maestri comacini (“masters of Como”), applied to itinerant guilds of masons, architects, and decorators who spread the Lombard style throughout Europe during the Middle Ages. Their brick or brick-cut stone-faced walls, excellent mortar, and other structural and stylistic accomplishments are still visible in buildings more than a thousand years old from Catalonia to Germany. The city itself centres on the modern Piazza Cavour, which opens onto the lake and divides the lakeside promenade into eastern and western sections. Notable landmarks include the Cathedral of Santa Maria Maggiore (14th–18th century), a fine example of the fusion of Gothic and Renaissance styles; the Broletto, or Communal Tower (1215; facade rebuilt 1435), the former city hall; and the Church of Sant’ Abbondio, formerly the cathedral, consecrated in 1095 on the site of an 8th-century church. Two of the oldest buildings are the Church of San Carpoforo, believed to date from the 4th century and standing on the site of a temple to Mercury, and the 12th-century Basilica of San Fedele. Several towers of the old fortifications survive, notably the Tower of Porta Vittoria (1192). The civic museum has archaeological collections, and there is also a museum of the Risorgimento (the 19th-century movement for Italian political unity).
Printing is an ancient art in Como, where Baldassare di Fossato printed the Opus statutorum (“Book of Laws”) of Alberico da Rosate in 1477 and the Vita di S. Giovanni de Capistrano (“Life of St. John of Capistrano”) in 1479. The two Plinys (Roman scholars) were born at Comum, and the physicist Alessandro Volta is commemorated by the Voltiano Temple (1928).
A rail junction and tourist centre, Como is noted for its old established silk industry. It is the site of the National Institute of Silk, with large workshops and laboratories and vocational-training facilities. Pop. (2004 est.) mun., 80,510.